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Betaine is a neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional group, such as a quaternary ammonium or phosphonium cation (generally referred to as onium ions), and a negatively charged functional group like a carboxylate group. The term was originally specific to trimethylglycine (TMG), a modified amino acid consisting of glycine with three methyl groups, involved in methylation reactions and the detoxification of homocysteine.

甜菜鹼, Betaine, 化妝品添加物, 保濕劑, 抗刺激, DNA聚合酶鏈反應, 甜菜提取, 化學合成, 皮膚護理, 頭髮護理

By User:Innerstream - Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=143586010

Effects in Cosmetics

Betaine's uses in cosmetics and personal care products include:

Serving as a moisturizer, helping the skin retain moisture.
Due to its anti-irritant properties, it helps reduce irritation in skin and hair products.
Enhancing the efficiency of DNA polymerase chain reactions, aiding in biotechnological research and product development.

 The Use in Food

As a food additive, betaine has the following uses:

In 2017, the European Food Safety Authority confirmed betaine as safe for use as a novel food at a maximum intake level of 6 mg/kg body weight per day, in addition to the intake from the background diet.
Used to improve the texture and moisture retention in foods, especially in dry or processed products.
As a nutritional supplement, it helps reduce levels of homocysteine in the blood, particularly important for individuals with genetic homocystinuria.

Source or Extraction Method

Betaine was initially discovered in sugar beets, hence its name. It is present in various plants, especially in the extracts of sugar beets.
Industrially, betaine can be produced through chemical synthesis or extracted from plant materials rich in betaine.

Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals 


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